MHA 1983 s41
See Restriction order for details. See Victims' rights to make representations and receive information for information relevant to some Tribunal hearings.
Changes made by Mental Health Act 2007
- Restriction orders can no longer be time-limited 1/10/07
- Responsible Clinician/Approved Clinician replaces Responsible Medical Officer 3/11/08
- Supervised Community Treatment replaces Supervised Discharge 3/11/08
Any cases with a hyperlink to this legislation will automatically be added here. There may be other relevant cases without a hyperlink, so please check the mental health case law page.
- Jones v Isleworth Crown Court  EWHC 662 (Admin) — Although the offender had not caused serious harm in the past, and the medical evidence did not recommend a restriction order, the judge was right to impose restrictions on the admission order under Schedule 1 Criminal Procedure (Insanity and Unfitness to Plead) Act 1991 on the basis that there was a risk of serious harm to the public, because of the history of paranoid schizophrenia with violent command auditory hallucinations and an escalation of violent offending.
- R (A) v Harrow Crown Court  EWHC 2020 (Admin) — The court order detaining the claimant under s37/41 MHA 1983 following a finding of unfitness to plead was irregular (as ultra vires s5 CPIA 1964 as then enacted) and was quashed; however, the detention was in accordance with a procedure prescribed by law and was not arbitrary, so there was no breach of Article 5.
- R (B) v Ashworth Hospital Authority  UKHL 20 — A patient detained for treatment under the Mental Health Act 1983 could be treated compulsorily under s 63 of that Act for any disorder from which he suffered, and not only for the particular form of disorder from which he was classified as suffering under the application or order which authorised his detention.
- R (B) v Dr SS  EWCA Civ 28 — MENTAL HEALTH — Compulsory detention — Consent to treatment — Convicted rapist detained in secure mental hospital — Refusal to consent to treatment — Whether compulsory treatment in breach of human rights — Mental Health Act 1983 (c 20), s 58 — Human Rights Act 1998, Sch 1, Pt I, arts 3, 8, 14. The compulsory treatment of a mental patient under s58(3)(b) of the Mental Health Act 1983 did not infringe the patient’s human rights under arts 3, 8 and 14 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Provided such treatment was medically necessary, it was not necessary also to show that it was required to prevent the patient causing harm to himself or others.
- R v Matthews  EWCA Crim 1936 — The trial judge had wanted to impose a hospital order under s37 and restriction order under s41 but could not as no hospital bed was available, despite several adjournments; given the risk to the public, the judge had no alternative but to pass a sentence of imprisonment for public protection. The extension of time sought exceeded two years nine months. There was no merit in the application and accordingly the application for leave and the application to extend permission to apply out of time were refused.
- R v Vowles; R (Vowles) v SSJ  EWCA Crim 45,  EWCA Civ 56,  MHLO 16 — "There are before the court: (1) Sitting as the Court of Appeal Criminal Division six cases where indeterminate sentences (either imprisonment for public protection (IPP) or a life sentence) had been passed between 1997 and 2008. Each specified a minimum term. In each case there was psychiatric evidence before the court with a view to a judge considering making a hospital order under MHA 1983 s37 as amended with a restriction under s41 of the same Act. The sentencing judge did not make such an order, but each was subsequently transferred to hospital under a transfer direction made by the Secretary of State under s47. (2) Sitting as the Court of Appeal Civil Division, a civil appeal in relation to a judicial review brought by the first of the appellants in the criminal appeals of the actions of the Secretary of State for Justice and the Parole Board relating to delay in the determination of her application for release from custody." In relation to the criminal aspect: in ..→
- Re C (Mental Patient: Habeas Corpus)  EWHC 243 (Admin) — The application for the issue of a writ of habeas corpus was premature and without any prospect of success; the proper course was to judicially review the Tribunal decision
- Reid v Secretary of State for Scotland  UKHL 43 — (1) Treatability test is part of admission criteria for psychopathic disorder, so entitled to discharge when it is not met; definition of treatment is wide and can include treatment only for symptoms rather than underlying disorder, e.g. anger management. (2) Decision not to discharge not irrational.
[The chapter/paragraph numbers which appear below (if any) refer to the 2008 versions of the Code of Practice and Reference Guide.]
- Reference Guide to the Mental Health Act 1983, 4. Hospital orders [Note that the chapter number relates to the old Reference Guide], 10. Restricted patients [Note that the chapter number relates to the old Reference Guide], 12. Detention in hospital [Note that the chapter number relates to the old Reference Guide], 18. Conditional discharge [Note that the chapter number relates to the old Reference Guide] — paragraphs 4.13 to 4.20 and 4.40 to 4.43 and chapters 10 and 18 (also paragraphs 12.96 and 12.97)
- Mental Health Act 1983 Code Of Practice for England, 21. Leave of absence
Power of higher courts to restrict discharge from hospital
41.—(1) Where a hospital order is made in respect of an offender by the Crown Court, and it appears to the court, having regard to the nature of the offence, the antecedents of the offender and the risk of his committing further offences if set at large, that it is necessary for the protection of the public from serious harm so to do, the court may, subject to the provisions of this section, further order that the offender shall be subject to the special restrictions set out in this section [...]; and an order under this section shall be known as "a restriction order".
(2) A restriction order shall not be made in the case of any person unless at least one of the registered medical practitioners whose evidence is taken into account by the court under section 37(2)(a) above has given evidence orally before the court.
(3) The special restrictions applicable to a patient in respect of whom a restriction order is in force are as follows—
- (a) none of the provisions of Part II of this Act relating to the duration, renewal and expiration of authority for the detention of patients shall apply, and the patient shall continue to be liable to be detained by virtue of the relevant hospital order until he is duly discharged under the said Part II or absolutely discharged under section 42, 73, 74 or 75 below;
- [(aa) none of the provisions of Part II of this Act relating to [community treatment orders and community patients] shall apply;]
- (b) no application shall be made to [the appropriate tribunal] in respect of a patient under section 66 or 69(1) below;
- (c) the following powers shall be exercisable only with the consent of the Secretary of State, namely—
- (i) power to grant leave of absence to the patient under section 17 above;
- (ii) power to transfer the patient in pursuance of regulations under section 19 above [or in pursuance of subsection (3) of that section]; and
- (iii) power to order the discharge of the patient under section 23 above;
- and if leave of absence is granted under the said section 17 power to recall the patient under that section shall vest in the Secretary of State as well as the [responsible clinician]; and
- (d) the power of the Secretary of State to recall the patient under the said section 17 and power to take the patient into custody and return him under section 18 above may be exercised at any time;
and in relation to any such patient section 40(4) above shall have effect as if it referred to Part II of Schedule 1 to this Act instead of Part I of that Schedule.
(4) A hospital order shall not cease to have effect under section 40(5) above if a restriction order in respect of the patient is in force at the material time.
(5) Where a restriction order in respect of a patient ceases to have effect while the relevant hospital order continues in force, the provisions of section 40 above and Part I of Schedule 1 to this Act shall apply to the patient as if he had been admitted to the hospital in pursuance of a hospital order (without a restriction order) made on the date on which the restriction order ceased to have effect.
(6) While a person is subject to a restriction order the [responsible clinician] shall at such intervals (not exceeding one year) as the Secretary of State may direct examine and report to the Secretary of State on that person; and every report shall contain such particulars as the Secretary of State may require.
- Mental Health Act 2007 s40; Mental Health Act 2007 (Commencement No. 3) Order 2007 wef 1/10/07
- Mental Health Act 2007 s10, s32 & sch 3, s55 & sch 11; Mental Health Act 2007 (Commencement No.7 and Transitional Provisions) Order 2008 wef 3/11/08
- Mental Health (Patients in the Community) Act 1995
- Transfer of Tribunal Functions Order 2008 wef 3/11/08
- Crime (Sentences) Act 1997